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a special culture medium for aweto
( Chinese patent CN101338276 )

Every 100kg culture medium comprises 7-9kg of silkworm chrysalis, 3-5kg scallop meat without hull and skin, 1.5-2.5kg of fresh beef, 4-6kg of fresh bovine bone, 0.4-0.6kg of pignuts, 4-6kg fresh milk, 0.8-1.2kg of soya peptone, 1.0-1.4kg of agar, 40-60g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 15-25g of magnesium sulfate and the rest is water.


CALCIUM CARBONATE-INDUCED ENHANCEMENT OF MORCHELLA ESCULENTA MYCELIAL GROWTH AND SCLEROTIA FORMATION
( - )


Masaphy, S. Migal, P.O.B. 831, Kiryat Shmona 11016, and Tel Hai Academic College, Upper
Galilee, 12210 Israel
38
An essential step in the Morchella life cycle is the production of sclerotia, which is a key factor in
fruiting body formation and quality. Sclerotia production is dependent on the composition of the
growth medium. The effect of adding calcium carbonate to potato dextrose agar medium on the
morphology and growth rate of vegetative mycelium and sclerotia formation in M. esculenta was
studied. Calcium carbonate increased both the linear growth rate of mycelium and the formation
of sclerotia. Other salts, such as magnesium carbonate and calcium oxide, had an effect similar to
calcium carbonate, unlike sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, while calcium sulfate
increased sclerotia production, but not the mycelial growth rate. It was concluded that the pH of
the medium changed due to the addition of calcium carbonate, which affected fungal growth and
morphology.


cordyceps - yimi 4 August,2006 13:51
( http://blog.pixnet.net/yimi )

Nonvolatile taste components of fruit bodies and mycelia of Cordyceps militaris
2. Materials and methods 2.1. Fruit bodies and myceliaThe pure culture of C. militaris (GK-101) was originally obtained from the Biotechnology Center, Grape King Inc., Chungli City, Taiwan. The myceliawere maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA, Difco Laboratories, Sparks, MD) at 25C. For the production of fruit bodies, the mycelia were inoculated into 250-ml glass bottles containing 100 g of solid medium and incubated at 25C. Fruit bodies were formed at day 30 and harvested at day 45 and freeze dried. The solid medium (1 l) consisted of 475 g organic unpolished rice, 15 g sucrose, 10 g yeast powder and 500 ml deionized water at pH 6.0. For the production of mycelia, the culture was inoculated into a 2-l flask containing 1.5 l of liquid medium and incubated at 25C and 100 rpm. The liquid medium (1 l) consisted of 20 g sucrose, 10 g yeast extract, 1 g (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 g KH2PO4, and 1 g MgSO4 at pH 6.0. After 14 days of incubation, the mycelia were harvested and washed five times with deionized water and freeze-dried. For each fruit bodies and mycelia, three dried samples (_50 g each) were randomly selected and ground using a mill (Retsch ultracentrifugal milland sieving machine Haan, Germany) to obtain fine powder (60 mesh).

Optimization of carbon source and carbon/nitrogen ratio forcordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris
2. Materials and methods2.1. Maintenance and seed culture of C. militaris The strain of C. militaris was purchased from the collection bank of Huazhong Agricultural University(Hubei, China). The stock culture was maintained on potato-dextrose-agar slants. The slants were inoculated with mycelia and incubated at 25 8C for 7 days, and then used for seed culture inoculation. The seed culture medium consisted of the following components: glucose, 40 g/l; yeast extract, 10 g/l; KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l; K2HPO4_3H2O, 0.5 g/l and MgSO4_7H2O, 0.5 g/l. The mycelia of C. militaris were transferred to the seed culture medium by punching out about 5 mm2 of the slants with a sterilized cutter. The seed culture was grown in a 250 ml shake flask containing 50 ml of liquid medium and incubated at 25 8C on a rotary shaker (110 rpm) for 5 days.



CULTIVATION OF MUSHROOMS ON POLYURETHANE FOAM PREPARED FROM LIQUEFIED SUGI BARK
( - )

Ashitani, T.1, Tateishi, U.2, Sakai, K.2 and Ohga, S.1 1Department of Forest and Forest Products
Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 394 Sasaguri, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan and
2Department of Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University,
Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) bark was liquefied using PEG-400 and sodium bisulfite at 250°C.
Polyurethane foams (PUF) were prepared from the resultant liquefied bark (LB) and polymeric
methylene diphenylene diisocyanate. The PUF prepared from sugi bark had higher water
3
absorption than the PUF prepared without LB. Cultivation of Cordyceps and Isaria species was
carried out on the PUF medium containing yeast extract and glucose. Mycelial growth of C.
sinensis, C. nutans, I. atypicola and I. japonica was observed on the PUF medium prepared from
the LB. Bio-degradability of the PUF was investigated by differential scanning colorimetric and
infrared analyses, and the results indicated that urethane linkage was decomposed during
mushroom cultivation.


Enhancement of mycelial growth by the addition of ethanol.
( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15269558 )

Enhancement of mycelial growth and polysaccharide production in Ganoderma lucidum (the Chinese medicinal fungus, 'Lingzhi') by the addition of ethanol.

Yang HL, Wu TX, Zhang KC.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Southern Yangtze University, Wuxi, PR China.

Methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol, at 1.5% (v/v), enhanced the growth and polysaccharide production of Ganoderma lucidum. Ethanol was the most effective at 1.5% (v/v) for increasing the biomass production, however, the maximal polysaccharide concentration was produced with 2% (v/v) ethanol in the medium. There was no new polysaccharide component produced by the addition of ethanol.

PMID: 15269558 [PubMed - in process]


GARDEN CULTIVATION OF THE PARASOL MUSHROOM
( - )

Hansson, G. and Hansson, L. Funginova AB, Mannarp Bolet, S-310 40 Harplinge, Sweden
Technology for garden cultivation of the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) was
developed. The growing substrate was a mixture of Agaricus compost and sawdust, pasteurized
in bags with 4 kg of substrate. The bags were inoculated with grain spawn. After a 6-8 wk
spawn run, the blocks were planted, usually in April, in lawns or pastures with a grass turf on top
of the block. During 1992–2000, approximately 300 blocks were planted throughout Sweden and
monitored for productivity. Almost 95% of the blocks produced mushrooms, providing there
were no abnormal soil or weather conditions. There was wide variation in yield, number and size
of mushrooms, duration of fruiting, and other parameters. In general, when planted in April,
mushroom production began in August to September of the same year, usually after heavy rains,
and continued for two years. Average total yields ranged from 0.6-1.2 kg mushrooms per block.
Between 5-10% of the blocks failed to produce mushrooms, but 10% showed sustained
production for up to at least 8 years, with yields of greater than 5 kg per block. Since 1996,
approximately 800 blocks have been produced and marketed to customers in Sweden.


LASER BEAM CAN GIVE MUSHROOMS A BOOST
( http://www.inauka.ru/englishnews/article35146.html )

The light of a laser is capable of enhancing the grow of mushrooms on a industrial scale.
The finding of Ukrainian scientists at the N.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany and the Physics Institute of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences might make mushrooms for our diet cheaper and more affordable.

Veshenka, shiitake and geritium are valuable edible mushrooms which can be grown industrially. If a young mycelium of those mushrooms is irradiated with a low intensity laser beam, it will cover the substrate tighter and develop mushroom bodies almost a month ahead than the one that wasn’t treated by the laser. The crop capacity is increased by 1.5 times. Different mushrooms prefer different colors. Geritium responds better when treated by a helium-neon laser, and shiitake, originally from the Chinese forests, feels better under the argon-green.


Militaris culture medium
( Chinese patent application 200710026981 )

rice 93kg, glucose 2kg, peptone 2kg, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 3kg, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.1kg, magnesium sulfate 0.05kg, vitamin B1 100 (10 milligrams/tablet) and water 130kg.


Optimization of Some Cultivation Conditions of Cordyceps militaris
( http://www.ceps.com.tw/ec/ecjnlarticleView.aspx?jnliid=3021&issueiid=39718&atliid=583454 )

Cordyceps militaris (L.: Fr.) Link is a valuable edible and medicinal fungus, and its market requirement is keeping growing. In order to increase the yield, some factors were studied to optimize the culture conditions. These factors included substrate-to-water ratios (1:1, 1:1.2, 1:1.5), mycelial pellets concentrations (6, 11, 15 pellets/mL), inoculation volumes (15, 20, 25mL/bottle) and dark cultivation time (2, 3, 4d). The results showed that the inoculation volume and the mycelia] pellets concentration performed greatly; the substrate-to-water ratios and the dark cultivation time had little effects. Substrate-to-water ratio at 1:1.5, 15 pellets/mL of seeds, inoculation of 25mL/bottle and 3d dark cultivation composed the optimized condition. Up to 17.96g of fruitbody (wet weitht) per 20g of rice was produced under it.

Key words:Cordyceps militatis; Water content of substrate; Yield


Optimization on Conditions of Artificial Cultivation of Cordyceps militaris
( http://www.ceps.com.tw/ec/ecjnlarticleView.aspx?jnliid=1871&issueiid=31055&atliid=404978 )

The cultural conditions of Cordyceps militaris were reported in this paper. The experiment results showed that the suitable technical conditions of yield of Cordyceps militaris were at 19C, pH7.5 and 300-700lx scattering light. The material was 90% rice mixed 10% powder of silkworm chrysalis, and the moisture was 60%.


PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC MECHANISMS OF INITIATION
( - )

41
Noble, R.1, Dobrovin-Pennington, A.1 and Hobbs, P. J.2 1Horticulture Research International,
Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK and 2Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research,
Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK
Agaricus bisporus will not initiate mushroom primordial on sterile peat-based casing materials,
but require the presence of stimulatory bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida. A wide range in
stimulatory response was found between different P. putida isolates, and some isolates stimulated
almost no primordia. The volatiles produced by mushroom mycelium before fruiting were
analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several eight-carbon compounds were
found to be in much higher concentrations from mycelium growing in sterile casing than in nonsterile
casing, and from A. bisporus strains that produce primordia sparsely than in strains that
produce abundant primordia. These eight-carbon compounds may therefore inhibit primordia
formation and control the amount of initiation. A wide range of casing materials was tested for
an ability to support initials under sterile conditions. Activated charcoal, coal, lignite and zeolite
all produced initials axenically. The results indicated that some of these adsorbent casing
materials can replace the effect of the stimulatory bacteria, possibly by adsorbing inhibitory
compounds produced by the mushroom mycelium that prevent fruiting. One of the A. bisporus
strains used in the experiments, B430, fruited on sterile peat-based casing, independently of
stimulatory bacteria.


Production of Fruiting Body Using Cultures of Entomopathogenic Fungal Species
( http://kmbase.medric.or.kr/Main.aspx?d=KMBASE&m=VIEW&i=0379119990270010015 )

One hundred and six Cordyceps cultures including five cultures of Paecilomyces tenuipes were used for production of artificial fruiting body. In the test of artificial fruiting body formation, no fruiting bodies were induced on media containing PDA and ground silkworm pupae with liquid nitrogen. The best fruiting body formation was showed on media which mixed at the ratio of 1 unsticky rice to 3.5 water. But fruiting bodies formed on media mixed at the ratio 1 unpolished rice to 2.5 water. Optimal temperature in inducing artificial fruiting body was at 20C. Twenty seven isolates were selected as good cultures for production of artificial fruiting body. Maturation of fruiting bodies incubated on rice grain media was completed for about 50 to 65 days.


UTILIZATION OF ELECTRIC IMPULSE IN THE FRUCTIFICATION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
( - )

Ohga, S. Department of Forest and Forest Products Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu
University, 394 Sasaguri, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan
The effect of an electric impulse on the formation of fruiting bodies was investigated for eight
edible mushrooms, Grifola frondosa, Pholiota nameko, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizygus
marmoreus, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, P. abalones and Agrocybe cylindracea. Just before
fructification, an electric impulse of 150 kV was directly discharged into the substrate. The
electric impulse enhanced the fructification of all eight edible mushrooms, especially Pleurotus
spp.




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